The Pandya territory occupied the southernmost and the south-eastern portion of the Indian peninsula, and it roughly included the fashionable districts of Tmnevelly, Ramnad and Madurai in Tamil Nadu. It had its capital at Madurai, which was the Tamil phrase for Mathura. The literature compiled inside the Tamil academies inside the early centuries of the Christian interval and often called the Sangam literature refers again to the Pandya rulers, nonetheless it doesn’t give any linked account One or two Pandya conquerors are talked about. Nonetheless, it’s evident from this literature that the nation was wealthy and prosperous. The Pandya kings profited from commerce with the Roman empire and despatched embassies to, the Roman emperor Augustus. The brahmanas cherished considerable have an effect on, and the Pandya kings carried out Vedic sacrifices inside the early centuries of the Christian interval.

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The Chola kingdom was often called Cholaman dalam or Coromandal

The Chola kingdom was often called Cholaman- dalam or Coromandal. It was situated to the north-east of the territory of the Pandyas, between the Pennar and the Velur rivers. We’ve now some idea of the political historic previous of the Cholas, whose chief centre of political power lay at Uraiyur, a spot well-known for cotton commerce. Plainly within the midst of the second century B.C. a Chola king named Elara conquered Sri Lanka and dominated over it for virtually 50 years A firmer historic previous of the Cholas begins inside the second century A.D. with their well-known king Karikala, who flourished spherical A.D. 100. He based mostly Puhar and constructed 160 km of embankment alongside the Kuveri river. This was constructed with the labour of 12,000 slaves who’ve been launched as captives from Sri Lanka. Puhar is the same with Kaveripattanam, which Vas the’ Chola capital. It was a grdat centre of commerce and commerce, and excavations current that it had an enormous dock. Qne of the precept sources of the wealth of the Cholas was commerce in cotton material. They maintained an setting pleasant navy which sailed as far as the mouths of the Ganga and the Iravadi, and in later centuries went even to the Malaya archipelago

Beneath Kaiikala’s successors the Chola power shortly declined. Their capital, Kaveripa- ttanam, was ovei whelmed and destroyed. Their two neighbouring powers, the Cheras and the Pandyas, extended on the worth of the Cholas. What remained of the Chola power was almost worn out by the assaults of the Pallavas from the north. From the fourth to the ninth century A.D. the Cholas carried out solely a marginal half in south Indian historic previous